Morbid obesity is used to describe the most severe form of obesity. Morbid obesity, where overweight increases the risk for many diseases, should be controlled with appropriate treatment options. Lifestyle change supported by diet therapy and exercise is the first treatment option for morbid obesity. However, in case of failure, obesity surgery methods such as sleeve gastrectomy can also be applied.
What is Morbid Obese?
In order to understand morbid obesity, it is necessary to understand the concept of obesity correctly. Obesity is associated with a person’s Body Mass Index (BMI). BMI is calculated using the individual’s height and weight values. BMI value can be easily calculated by following the steps below with a calculator.
- The square of the height value in meters is taken (for example, if your height is 172 cm, it is 1.72×1.72=2.96)
- Then the weight value is divided by the result (for example, if your weight is 85 kg, 85/2.96= 28.7)
- The value found is the BMI value.
Morbid Obesity Is Expressed For After How Many Weights?
Obesity is when this value is above the scientifically determined values. The degree of obesity of the individual can be understood by looking at the BMI classification. This classification is as follows:
- If the BMI value is between 18.5 and 25, the individual is in the normal, healthy weight range,
- If the BMI value is between 25 and 30, the individual is in the overweight range,
- If the BMI value is between 30 and 40, the individual is in the obesity range,
- If the BMI value is over 40, the individual is in the morbidly obese range.
Morbid obesity is also referred to as severe obesity in some sources. Finding out how much weight is morbid obesity depends on the person’s height. While the same weight cannot create the morbid obesity value for a taller person, it can create the morbid obesity value for a shorter person.
What Causes Morbid Obesity?
Morbid obesity can occur after uncontrolled weight gain. If the BMI value is between 35-40 and the person has concomitant cardiovascular diseases such as diabetes or blood pressure, this can also be called morbid obesity.
Morbid obesity is not related to weight alone. It can be caused by many underlying diseases that may cause uncontrolled weight gain, as well as cause many health problems. At the same time, the following can be shown among the causes of morbid obesity;
- bad lifestyle,
- Genetic predisposition,
- sedentary life,
- A diet in which western-style fast food foods are frequently included,
- Harmful habits.
Morbid Obesity Symptoms
The most basic symptom of morbid obesity is weight problem. Many symptoms can be seen as a result of the weight problem experienced. For example;
- Discomfort with the person’s appearance,
- Physical dissatisfaction, low self-esteem,
- Difficulty in physical activities, walking,
Morbid Obesity Risks
Morbidly obese individuals are at risk for certain diseases. Excess weight makes the body tired and invites diseases. These risks are:
- Diabetes: Morbid obesity can cause insulin resistance, which makes it difficult to keep blood sugar in the body at a normal value. This increases the risk of diabetes.
- Heart Diseases: The risk of blood pressure and cardiovascular diseases increases due to poor diet and weight problems. In addition, morbid obesity creates a burden for the heart, which can lead to serious heart diseases in the future.
- Bone and joint disorders: Excess weight causes pressure on bones and joints in the body. This way the bones wear out faster and it becomes harder to move.
- Breathing problems: Even simple activities such as walking, climbing stairs or doing housework can become difficult for the morbidly obese. In addition, it can cause sleep apnea or difficulty in breathing due to the pressure it will create on the fat mass accumulated in the neck area.
- Gastoesophageal reflux: It can bring along many digestive system problems such as morbid obesity, reflux, gastritis, heartburn.
- Psychological Problems: The coexistence of many diseases can increase the stress level in the body and cause depression in the person.
Diagnosing Morbid Obesity
To diagnose morbid obesity, the individual’s height and weight are checked. If the BMI classification is over 40 or over 35 and has concomitant diseases, the person is considered as morbidly obese. Your doctor may refer to methods such as blood analysis, physical examination, blood pressure measurement to determine whether there is a comorbid disease. In addition, nutritionists can use other anthropometric measurements that help in the diagnosis and degree of obesity, such as waist circumference and hip circumference, when they deem necessary. The waist circumference classification is as follows:
- For women, 80 cm and above are risky, 88 cm and above are high-risk.
- For men, 94 cm or more is risky, and 102 cm is high risk.
Morbid Obesity in Women
Morbid obesity in women can make the person vulnerable to health problems as it increases the risk of disease. It can cause hormonal irregularities by affecting hormone levels, and infertility due to the pressure it will create on the reproductive organs.
Morbid Obesity in Men
Morbid obesity in men can increase the risk of the disease. It can make it difficult to do routine work by causing the individual to have difficulty in doing physical activity. In addition, the pressure of excess weight on the bladder, kidneys and urinary system can cause weakening of the muscles, making it difficult to hold urine.
Morbid Obesity Treatment
Morbid obesity is a health problem that can be solved with a holistic approach. In order to achieve a successful result, a team work including dietitians, physicians, physiotherapists and psychologists is required. Treatment methods used in the treatment of morbid obesity are listed below:
Dietary Therapy: Dietary therapy should only be administered by dietitians who have graduated from nutrition and dietetics departments. Nutritionists specialized in this field help the person to reach the desired weight by planning the right weight loss diets. The purpose of weight loss diets is to create the most healthy weight loss plan by creating an energy deficit, without damaging the body.
Lifestyle Change: In addition to diet therapy, it is necessary to change eating habits. For this, the following can be done:
- Avoiding packaged foods with high calorie and fat content,
- Eliminating processed foods and carbonated drinks with high simple sugar content from your life,
- Changing fast food-style eating habits with balanced eating habits using healthy cooking methods,
- Consuming fruits and vegetables instead of packaged foods,
- Not eating late at night.
Changing these habits and replacing them with healthy eating behaviors will make the process easier with the help of nutritionists, although it will be difficult for the person at first.
Exercise and Physical Activity: It is important to support the weight loss process with sports, both to get more effective results and to accelerate the recovery of the body. Increasing the level of physical activity with small changes such as getting off the bus one stop earlier, using the stairs instead of the elevator, participating in outdoor activities will contribute to the weight loss process.
Therapy: The weight loss process can be a difficult and stressful process for morbidly obese individuals. In addition, from time to time, psychological problems may lie under the weight problem. In order to spend this process in the healthiest way and to keep it under control, therapy support from expert psychologists is extremely important. In this process, a great responsibility falls on the relatives of the individual. Physical criticism that will break the self-confidence of the person should be avoided and support should be given to him in this process.
Obesity Surgery : Losing weight in morbid obesity is more difficult than in normal obesity or being overweight. If the weight loss process is still not successful as a result of diet and exercise, obesity surgery can also be applied when deemed necessary. The surgical decision should be taken holistically and carried out by a specialist physician. The procedure performed in bariatric surgery is to reduce the stomach volume in general. As a result of this treatment, which is also known as bariatric surgery, it becomes easier to feel full. Thus, the amount of food consumed is reduced and it is easier to lose weight. The methods used in bariatric surgery are:
- Gastric Bypass: Also known as gastric bypass . In this process, the size of the stomach is reduced and the stomach is connected to a further point of the intestine. Thus, the part of the body where carbohydrates are most absorbed is disabled. It is an effective surgery in the weight loss process.
- Tube Stomach Surgery: Tube stomach aims to shrink the stomach and provides a feeling of fullness in a shorter time. In addition, this process can be effective on the hormones that are effective in the formation of weight balance.
- Gastric Band: It is the process of placing a band on the upper part of the stomach that will prevent the stomach from loosening. This causes you to eat fewer nutrients and therefore fewer calories, thus making it easier to lose weight. However, depending on the area where it is placed, it can lead to infections. It is also less effective in weight loss than sleeve gastrectomy surgery.
Nutrition before and after gastric surgery is very important and should be regulated by a specialist dietitian. It is very important to be in a team work with individual approaches in the treatment of morbid obesity. Bariatric surgery and sleeve gastrectomy may be preferred by specialist physicians in morbid obesity that cannot be resolved with dietary approaches. Morbid obesity is a health problem that can be solved with appropriate interventions and techniques. The most appropriate treatment should be organized by health professionals, dietitians and physicians who are experts in the field.
You can safely be examined in our hospitals to plan the most suitable obesity treatment for you. Gastric sleeve surgery is performed by specialist physicians in our hospitals. After your necessary examinations are done, your suitability for bariatric surgery can be evaluated and you can take a day for an operation that suits you.