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What is premenstrual tension syndrome (Premenstrual syndrome, PMS)?

What is premenstrual tension syndrome (Premenstrual syndrome, PMS)?

As the menstrual bleeding approaches, some complaints occur in 75% of women due to changing hormone levels. In half of these women, the complaints are mild and do not affect the daily life of the person. The other half develops much more serious complaints, including depression. Premenstrual complaints may be physiological or psychological and may be affected by cultural differences. PMS is a combination of both physiological and psychological events.

What complaints do women with premenstrual tension syndrome come with?

Studies show that different complaints occur in women from different cultures. While the most common complaint in Far Eastern women is pain, depression is the most common finding in developed western societies. Complaints that negatively affect the social life of the person and appear every month can even cause the woman to lose her self-confidence.

What are the physical symptoms?

Almost all women with PMS symptoms have breast tenderness and mild temporary weight gain. Other symptoms include digestive system disorders, headache, rashes, muscle and joint pain, weakness, bleeding gums, palpitations, balance disorders, hot flashes, hypersensitivity to sounds and smells, agitation, and insomnia. Painful or excessive menstrual bleeding, that is, dysmenorrhea, is not considered as PMS.

What are the emotional symptoms?

Emotional hypersensitivity is very common in PMS. There can be many different moods, from depression to anxiety to extreme irritability. Some women may experience mild memory loss. Concentration disorder is not uncommon in PMS. The state of depression, restlessness and tension seen in some women is called premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD).

Causes of PMS?

Studies to find the causes of PMS could not fully reveal the underlying factors of this picture. However, there are some theories. If some hormones that suppress ovulation (ovulation) are given, there is a regression in PMS symptoms. Accordingly, reproductive hormones may cause PMS, but what this role is has not been explained. There is strong evidence that PMS occurs as a result of the joint action of these hormones and some substances that provide transmission in the nerves. The substances most blamed are those called GABA and serotonin. Some researchers believe that the disorder in the balance of calcium and magnesium leads to the picture of PMS. The distribution of these two minerals in the body can cause the picture by affecting the communication between nerve cells. These researchers’ PMS’ They suggest that magnesium deficiency or excess calcium cause complaints in women with aging. Another cause of PMS is stress hormones. Excess of these hormones can cause more intense complaints. Almost all hormones and substances secreted in the body are blamed in the etiology of PMS. However, no proven cause has been found.

Who gets PMS more?

PMS is a condition encountered in all cultures all over the world. In a study, 88% of women found PMS findings at different levels. As the age increases, the severity of the complaints decreases, but the severity increases with the number of children. Complaints are also more common in women whose mothers have PMS. PMS can also increase the severity of some diseases. For example, most of the attacks in women with migraine coincide with the premenstrual period. Again, in diabetics, blood sugar levels and insulin needs change in the premenstrual period. Asthma attacks are more common and many chronic diseases show exacerbations. During this period, the harmony of the person with his environment is disturbed, and his relations with the people with whom he has relations at work or at home and his children may deteriorate. The tendency to suicide may increase in teenage girls.

How is PMS diagnosed?

The diagnosis of PMS is not based on positive findings. The most reliable way for diagnosis is to record the complaints for 2-3 months and score their severity. Complaints should be separated physically and mentally, and when they started and when they ended should be recorded regularly.

What kind of path is followed in the treatment of PMS?

Since the cause of PMS is not known exactly, its treatment is not certain. There are many different treatment approaches in this regard.

Diet:  There are reports that eating little and often reduces symptoms. Consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables in the premenstrual period, avoiding red meat and frozen fats, and not consuming foods containing additives can sometimes be beneficial. Likewise, reducing caffeine and alcohol consumption may also be beneficial.

Exercise:  In a study, it was found that PMS is more common in women who do not exercise. A 30-minute walk each day can be helpful.

Calcium and Magnesium:  There is a study reporting that daily calcium intake of 1200 mg reduces symptoms by half at the end of 3 months. Some women benefited from magnesium supplementation. However, there are no definite findings on this subject yet.

Vitamins:  Although it has been suggested that vitamins A, E and B6 cause PMS, there is no conclusive evidence.

Other treatment options include drugs related to serotonin metabolism, hormone drugs, psychiatric drugs such as antidepressants and anxiety, diuretics, male hormones, but none of them have a definite benefit. Other rare treatment approaches include psychotherapy and acupuncture.

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